It’s never a good idea to jump to conclusions when trying to find a cause for any symptoms you might have. With multiple sclerosis (MS), self-diagnosing is not the way to go. This disease may cause permanent damage even in its earliest stages so it’s crucial to get it properly diagnosed as soon as possible.
According to the National MS Society, these are the tools used to diagnose MS:
1. Medical history and neurological exam
A doctor is critical for this method. He or she will keep track of the patient’s medical and family history and keep an eye out for past or future signs or symptoms that might be connected to MS. A doctor will also perform a series of psychological and physical examinations to test the patient’s senses and cognitive abilities.
2. Magnetic resonance imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently the least invasive method available to map a patient’s central nervous system (CNS) and detect any problems. As MS is centered on the CNS, this scan can both help diagnose the patient as well as keep track of changes throughout their life. It’s important to note that when patients (up to 5 percent of cases) are first diagnosed through other methods, they might not show signs of damage on an MRI. However, if later on in the development of the disease they still do not show any signs on an MRI, they might need to question their MS diagnosis.
3. Optical coherence tomography
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a rather new and non-invasive method. It consists of an imaging tool that maps the structure of the retinas. The optic nerves are usually affected by MS but before this tool was invented, they couldn’t really be analyzed. Now with OCT, studies have shown that the retinal nerves of people with MS and without it are different.
4. Evoked potentials test
Evoked potentials (EP) works by stimulating nerve pathways and measuring what it does to your brain activity. Although there’s a stimulation of those pathways, this is done through light, sensation or sound, so it’s harmless and mostly painless. Like MRIs, this test can help detect demyelination, which is crucial to officially diagnosing MS.
5. Cerebrospinal fluid test
There is a liquid in the human body that surrounds the spinal cord and the brain called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This liquid is filled with nutrients and chemicals that differ between people who have and don’t have MS. Spinal taps are required to test the liquid, and obviously must be done by a doctor. By examining this fluid, doctors can detect various nervous system diseases, including MS.
Multiple Sclerosis News Today is strictly a news and information website about the disease. It does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. This content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.