multiple sclerosis diagnosisThere is no single test to diagnosis multiple sclerosis, but a thorough physical and neurologic examination that includes imaging and other tests, combined with a careful study of a patient’s medical history, are a first step to diagnosing the disease and, importantly, ruling out other possible causes of symptoms being reported. A patient should report symptoms common to multiple sclerosis (MS) quickly to a physician, as early treatment can help to counter the disease’s intensity and progression.

Criteria known as the McDonald Criteria (revised in 2010) has established guidelines for tests used to speed diagnosis. According to the National MS Society, a physician under this criteria must:

  • Assess for damage in at least two separate areas of the central nervous system (brain, spinal cord and optic nerves)
  • Find evidence that damage took place at least one month apart
  • Rule out other possibilities for the CNS damage and demyelination found

Some possible other causes of symptoms include vitamin deficiencies, viral infections that cause inflammation of the brain and spinal cord, Guillian Barre syndrome (which causes demyelination of the peripheral nervous system), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM, an isolated post-infection or post-vaccination autoimmune attack on the CNS), and Schilder disease (characterized in children and young adolescents by demyelination).

The most important tests for confirming MS include:

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), which helps to detect the lesions caused as a result of demyelination. MRI is the most non-invasive and sensitive way of imaging the brain and spinal cord.
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) is the clear liquid the cushions the brain and spinal cord, and changes in this fluid can indicate problems. According to the National Health Service (U.K.), a lumbar puncture, usually done under a local anesthetic, is used to remove a fluid sample, which will then be tested for immune cells and antibodies.
  • Evoked Potentials (EP) are tests to measure the electrical activity of the brain in response to stimulation, checking the strength of the nervous system and the speed of impulses based on the stimulation of specific sensory pathways. These tests, commonly done to the eyes, can reveal demyelination.
  • Neurological Exams look for changes, weakness, or abnormalities in vision, eye movements, extremity strength (hands or legs), balance and co-ordination, speech, and reflexes.
  • Blood cultures are done to rule out other possible causes of symptoms, like a vitamin deficiency.

Learn more about multiple sclerosis treatment.

Note: Multiple Sclerosis News Today is strictly a news and information website about the disease. It does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. This content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.

Patrícia holds her PhD in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases from the Leiden University Medical Center in Leiden, The Netherlands. She has studied Applied Biology at Universidade do Minho and was a postdoctoral research fellow at Instituto de Medicina Molecular in Lisbon, Portugal. Her work has been focused on molecular genetic traits of infectious agents such as viruses and parasites.
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Özge has a MSc. in Molecular Genetics from the University of Leicester and a PhD in Developmental Biology from Queen Mary University of London. She worked as a Post-doctoral Research Associate at the University of Leicester for six years in the field of Behavioural Neurology before moving into science communication. She worked as the Research Communication Officer at a London based charity for almost two years.
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Patrícia holds her PhD in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases from the Leiden University Medical Center in Leiden, The Netherlands. She has studied Applied Biology at Universidade do Minho and was a postdoctoral research fellow at Instituto de Medicina Molecular in Lisbon, Portugal. Her work has been focused on molecular genetic traits of infectious agents such as viruses and parasites.

5 comments

  1. Alyna Kenerson says:

    You guys should check out IQuity. They have a new RNA blood test that is supposed to be very accurate. It’s supposed to help doctors diagnose earlier.

  2. Lara Angold says:

    I’m getting a band of pain around my chest. I just woke up with it. I’ve had this happen in the past and just thought it might be heartburn. It lasts a while. It eventually goes away but i read about MS hug. Should i get tested?

  3. Donna McMullen says:

    I would definitely see a doctor, soon. I have been ill for two years and many thousands of dollars in dr bills and tests…still nothing. I just saw this article and I have ALL the symptoms. Mi will be seeing doctor ASAP. Take care, I wish you the best.

  4. April C Anderson says:

    All of this is so confusing. I was diagnosed with RA in 2016. In the last 4 months or so I have seen a marked interest in fatigue (I can’t imagine working a 40-hour a week job like I used to). I also deal with memory loss, mispronounced words (or using the wrong word in the context of a sentence). Decreased hand strength, wobbly legs or a feeling of my legs being super heavy leading to trouble walking, and shaking in my hands and legs. My RA is being treated by Humira only. I was also given Lyrica and Cymbalta for Fibromyalgia.

    My Rheumatologist has not mentioned anything about MS despite what I told her. Is there another type of doctor to see? I had nerve testing back in late 2017 but could not tolerate the procedure.

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